Engaging Faith: Practical lesson ideas and activities for Catholic Educators

April 20, 2015

Eight Be-Attitudes for Teachers


As you enter the final home stretch of the semester, take some time to review these eight Be-Attitudes for teachers developed by Sr. Kieran Sayer, SSND.

1. Be Prepared

Study the Teacher Manual carefully. Think through lesson plans, outline them, and prepare your own note cards for teaching them. Visualize each part of the lesson in your mind, "seeing" it step by step. You should clearly understand the purpose and expected outcome.

2. Be Yourself

Make the material your own. Think about it; pray about it; if possible, talk about it with other adults. Use the ideas in the Teacher Manual creatively--add your own examples, substitute other activities, shorten or lengthen sections. The lessons should come across to the students as yours, not as the Manual's.

3. Be Organized

Have a definite plan of action for each part of the lesson. Be especially clear about giving directions for discussion exercises and activities. Have all the materials ready for quick distribution.

4. Be Flexible

Be ready to adjust your well-organized plan at a moment's notice. Some activities may last longer or shorter than expected; some won't fit the mood of the class period; some won't work well for your or your students. Always have more material planned than you think you will need. Keep your eye on the clock; if you're running short of time, shorten or drop something--but, please, not the opportunity to pray with your students.

5. Be Open

Listen to what your students have to say, and encourage them to listen to one another. Accept their feelings and ideas even if you don't agree with them. Be ready at times to challenge them (always respectfully) on ideas and positions that are inconsistent, erroneous, or unclear.

6. Be Firm

Do not allow the students to be disrespectful of you or one another. Maintain an orderly, controlled atmosphere even during fun times. Let the students know that you expect adult contact from them.

7. Be Happy

Enjoy your students. Enjoy their nonsense and exuberance as well as their thoughtfulness and serious sharing. Let them know that you like being with them.

8. Be-lieve

Believe that you are not in this business alone, that God and the Church play active roles in this process of transmitting and sharing faith. Believe that God is involved in the lives of your students, that the action of God's grace precedes, accompanies, and follows all your efforts. Believe that the faith is alive in your school, and that the entire student body and faculty are helping in some way to transmit that faith to your students.


April 14, 2015

God, Faith, Religion on Social Media

Lead a discussion or assign the following items for your students to work on individually or in small groups on the topic of how social media is used and can be used more effectively to evangelize and inspire others around the Gospel message.

Discuss or Write

1. Over the course of a day, about how many Scripture passages are posted on your social media feed?

2. How often do you read the Scripture that is posted?

3. How effective is social media as a forum for evangelization?

4. Copy and paste what you would consider an effective or inspiring social media post on God, faith, or religion? Tell why you find it so.

5. Read and summarize the article “Five Things Fulton Sheen Teaches Us about Social Media.”  (Read about Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen here.)

6. Write a one-paragraph social media post on faith that you believe would be effective or inspiring for your peer group. Also, summarize the post with a 140-character tweet.

April 6, 2015

Lessons on Religious Liberty for the Theology Classroom

By Justin McClain

This year marks the fiftieth anniversary of the watershed Vatican II declaration on religious freedom Dignitatis Humanae: On the Right of the Person and of Communities to Social and Civil Freedom in Matters Religious, promulgated by Blessed Pope Paul VI on December 7, 1965. Within these last fifty years, there has been some notable progress, yet likewise significant setbacks, in terms of religious liberty both in the United States and throughout the world. This polemical topic is one that merits discussion in the high school theology classroom, provided that it is both appropriate to the intellectual preparedness of the students’ grade level and applicably relevant within the course’s curricular framework. This possibility of the discussion of specifics regarding religious freedom is particularly due to the numerous implications at the cross-curricular intersection of theology and social studies, not to mention other academic fields when available.

 In 2013, Janet Wigoff, chair of the Theology Department at Pope John Paul II High School in Royersford, Pennsylvania, developed the exceptionally noteworthy Religious Liberty and Catholicism in the United States: A Five-Day Mini-Unit (published by Ave Maria Press and available for free to teachers here as a PDF). In the couple of years since, there has been a heightened consideration of cases regarding religious liberty nationally, as we have seen in such scenarios as the situation surrounding the Religious Freedom Restoration Act in Indiana, threats to religious freedom in the District of Columbia, and other areas of concern. Meanwhile, internationally, there has been a marked increase in the violent persecution of Christians and other religious minorities in such areas as the Middle East, regions of the African continent, and parts of Asia.

High school theology teachers have ready access to plentiful resources for facilitating dialogue on matters related to religious liberty, whether from the perspective of the United States or the international community. However, it is vital to remember that proposed sources should be both objectively accurate and doctrinally sound, in order to ensure that students are provided with a fair portrayal of the breadth and significance of religious liberty. This latter point is particularly cogent since these students’ generation will one day have to defend true religious freedoms in the midst of the stark reality that, as Pope Francis affirmed at a June 2014 religious freedom conference (titled “International Religious Liberty and the Global Clash of Values”), “the persecution of Christians today is even more virulent than in the first centuries of the Church, and there are more Christian martyrs today than in that era.” Indeed, it is worthwhile to maintain insights into religious freedom in the face of both direct and indirect persecution, all the while juxtaposing such reflections with Christ’s words as they appear in John 15:20: “No slave is greater than his master. If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you.” Ultimately, the Christian is called to evangelize in conjunction with the underpinnings of veritable religious liberty, in order to bring about a more peaceful society based on Jesus’ expectations as described in Matthew 5:14-16: "You are the light of the world. A city set on a mountain cannot be hidden. Nor do they light a lamp and then put it under a bushel basket; it is set on a lampstand, where it gives light to all in the house. Just so, your light must shine before others, that they may see your good dees and glorify your heavenly Father."

Please note the following resources that you can use to substantively enhance Liberty and Catholicism in the United States: A Five-Day Mini-Unit and the content of your lessons related to the key factors regarding rhetorical aspects of religious liberty in the third millennium.


Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs – Religious Freedom Project (provided by Georgetown University)

Cardinal Donald Wuerl Keynote Address – Religious Liberty in a Pluralistic Society (a YouTube video provided by the Berkley Center at Georgetown University, September 13, 2012)

Congress Urged to Act for Protection of Religious Freedom and Conscience Rights in the District of Columbia (provided by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, March 20, 2015)

Dignitatis Humanae: On the Right of the Person and of Communities to Social and Civil Freedom in Matters Religious (promulgated by Blessed Pope Paul VI, December 7, 1965)

The Freedom to Bear Witness (an address by Archbishop William Lori of the Archdiocese of Baltimore at Mount St. Mary’s Seminary, November 15, 2014)

Indiana Bishops Respond to State Religious Freedom Restoration Act (a statement provided by the Archdiocese of Indianapolis, April 1, 2015)

Issues and Action: Religious Liberty (provided by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops)

Letters to President Obama and Congressional Leaders Concerning Religious Freedom Violations in the Middle East (provided by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, February 23, 2015)

Nigerian Bishops Visit Refugees in Cameroon Who Fled Boko Haram (provided by the Catholic Herald / Catholic News Service, March 24, 2015)

Persecution of Christians (provided by the Archdiocese of New York)

Pope Francis Addresses Religious Freedom Conference (provided by Vatican Radio, June 20, 2014)

Religious Freedom Under Assault (provided by the Archdiocese of Washington)

Silencing the Church’s Voice (by Cardinal Wuerl of the Archdiocese of Washington, March 2, 2015)


Mr. Justin McClain is a Theology teacher at Bishop McNamara High School in Forestville, Maryland.

March 30, 2015

Guided Meditation: The Prayer in the Garden

We struggle to remain “awake” and alert at the time of Jesus’ agony. In that agony we discover our ability, because of God’s gift, to minister to the disciples and to Jesus. We then become empowered to minister to others in our lives. This meditation comes from Luke 22:39-46. Have your students find a comfortable place and close their eyes. Read the meditation. Pause slightly on each ellipse. Pause slightly longer on paragraph breaks. Total time: 11 minutes.

And we pray:

Almighty God in heaven …

There are times when our path seems confusing …

When the direction we take is uncertain … when the course we should choose is unclear …

We get confused because we’re not sure how things will work out …

Or what the future holds …

Or what we can do now to make things better later …

We try to trust in you …

We want to put our faith in you …

But what can be scary …. when we’re not certain of your will for us …

        when we’re unsure of what is best …

As we meditate … send us your Holy Spirit to guide us … to teach us …

That we might learn deeper trust …

Deeper faith …

That we might act with greater love …

Greater hope …


With your eyes still closed …

Take a slow deep breath …

Let it fill you …

And again …another breath …

Slowly and deeply …

A breath which makes you lighter and lighter …

When you feel weightless …

Exhale the air slowly … silently …

Letting the air propel you … back in time …

Far away in the distance …

To ancient Israel … to the time of Jesus Christ …

It’s early evening …

You find yourself on a high knoll …

Overlooking a valley that leads to the walled city of Jerusalem …

        ahead of you …

And in the bright moonlight you can make our the city’s silhouette …

With its towers … and angled stone buildings …

Squeezed together and protected by an enormous wall …

The night air is refreshing … a cool breeze gently twists and turns …

The sky is crowded with stars …while the moon casts long shadows …

But the city seems strangely quiet … eerie …

As if something important were about to happen …

Something that no one is prepared for …


From where you are on the knoll …

You can just make out a group of travelers …

Walking from Jerusalem …

In your direction on a dirt road …

You can see that they will soon come to a fork …

When they reach it they pause …

And one of the group motions the rest to follow him into a garden …

They move through the opening of the protective stone wall … through the

        gate and into the garden … lush and peaceful … private … secluded …


And you join them there … walking with them through the old cluster of

        Olive trees … trunks thick and twisted … rugged braches hanging low …

Most of the group sit under the outside edge of trees … huddled together …

        their cloaks pulled close to their chins … staying warm … getting comfortable …

The oldest of the group … Peter … points out a solitary figure over to

        one side … near a well …

Peter tells you how that man had been welcomed into Jerusalem with

        cheering … earlier in the week …

He had talked about the end being near … about how everything would

        change now … since he was coming into his kingdom …

Everyone thought he meant that he would lead a fight to get rid of the

        Romans … but he didn’t …and the mood of the people began to change …

They aren’t cheering anymore …and the man has many powerful enemies

        here in Jerusalem …

It’s getting confusing …


Then he talked about betrayal … the man said someone would

        betray him … one of his best friends …how could a friend betray

        another friend? …

Now we don’t know who to trust …

We got into an argument …we accused each other …

He tried  to bring us together for the Passover meal … but now we suspect

        each other …. we are angry …


Do you understand Peter? … Do you know what he is trying to say about

        being betrayed by friends?

Sometimes our friends are really against us … when we think they are

        supporting us…

They can turn against us … as if all they really cared about was themselves …

And we become disappointed with their selfishness … their greed …

And become so very angry at how they ruined everything …. And we feel like

        we’ve lost all control …. And that we are at their mercy …

Has anything like that happened to you? …

Is there anything you would say to Peter? …

Anything you could do to comfort him, soothe his hurt feelings? …

Bring him peace …

Peace …


Another of the group … the one with reddish hair … Thomas tries to

        explain to you how that man had said that everything would change …

        now that he was leaving …

But he won’t take us with him … he is leaving us alone … with no way to

        find him …

Thomas tells you about how he has come to depend on this man …

How he learned to trust him …

How he made plans … knowing that he would be part of those plans …

And now he says that is leaving … soon he’ll be gone … and all our plans

        will be destroyed … all my dreams will vanish …


Do you understand Thomas? … Do you know what he is trying to say about

        the fear of having our friends leave? …

Our hopes fade like the morning mist … and vanish …

And we are left alone … empty … with dry tears and deep sadness … we

        want to sob … but we hurt too much … and are drained of all our

        strength …

And we become fearful about how we will continue without them …

        when nothing will ever be the same … and we know we will suffer terrible

        loneliness when they’re gone …

Has that ever happened to you? ….

Is there anything you would like to say to Thomas? …

Is there any way you could comfort him? …

Bring him peace …

Peace …


And then the youngest calls out for your attention … a very young

        teenager … John waves you over to him …

And he begins to tell you how he wanted to help the situation …

        because he had insights …and he knew what to do …

But nobody would listen …

Nobody would pay attention to him … they just ignored him … because he

        was the youngest … they thought he didn’t know anything … they took

        him for granted … even though he was the only one that

        really understood …

Nobody would give him credit or acknowledge him …

And John … with great frustration … suddenly crosses his arms over

        his chest …

As if closing himself off … as if protecting himself from more hurt …

        from being ignored …


Can you understand John? … Do you know what he is trying to say about

        being ignored or not having your opinions respected? …

Think about how you feel when people won’t accept your knowledge or

        experience … and you become very frustrated …

And they treat you as if you are insignificant …

Saying that you’ll know better when you get older …

And until then … they continue to treat you as if you were invisible …

Or maybe they pretend that they are listening or agreeing … but all they

        time … they’re just trying to pacify you … because they think they have

        the right answer in spite of you …

And you want to tell them how ignorant they are … but it wouldn’t matter …

        because they surely wouldn’t listen to that either …

Has anything like that ever happened to you? …

Is there anything you could say to John? …

Is there any way you could comfort him? …

And be at peace …

Peace …


As the group becomes drowsy … yawning … falling asleep … snoring …

You slowly walk over to the solitary man … who is at a distance …

        near the well …

As you quietly approach him from behind …

You notice that the heavy robe he wars is soaked with sweat …

        his hair is dripping … stringy and matted …

He rubs his hands together … twisting and turning them in his anxiety …

His breathing is erratic … alternately deep and shallow …

        breathing in gulps or sips …

You stand next to him …

He looks up with his bloodshot eyes … skin shining in the moonlight …

        his lip trembling … and he begins to shiver …

Tears have streaked his face …

And he tells you that he is scared …

Scared ….


Nothing has seemed to work out the way he wanted it …

His friends seem to have forgotten everything he said to them about

        the kingdom …

They fight and quarrel … argue over who is the greatest …

Money and possessions are more important than anything …

He had hoped to change people’s hearts … end fighting and cruelty …

        establish God’s justice … usher in God’s return to his world … this world …

And now … at the end … hoping to find healing love in the hearts of those

        around him … he instead finds overwhelming sin …

And he wonders if he has done something wrong … he fears he has

        failed miserably …

He’s afraid he is a disappointment to his heavenly Father …

And there is no time left to change things …

And he would rather have another chance … or more time …

But his only choice seems to be to pay the price for all the sin that remains …

        to suffer for those who still sin … to take that sin upon himself and

        destroy it by letting his own life be destroyed …

He has to die …


“If only there were another way,” he says …

“Some way other than suffering because of others …

Bearing all the pain that they have caused …

Suffering the refection even of those who claim to love me …

My friends abandon me when I need them most …

I don’t think that I am strong enough to endure all that” …


And Jesus begins to sob … his hands shaking, hiding his face …

        as if he were humiliated to have you see him at this

        difficult hour of his life …

You can hear him murmur that there is no other way … and that somehow

        he will just have to trust … to surrender to the Father … to trust that

        God the Father can make sense of whatever seems confusing …

Then he looks up … exhausted … bone weary … hand trembling …

He extends his hand to you … silently … waiting … hoping …

Is there anything you would like to say to the Lord? …

Is there anything you can do for him? …

Can you bring him peace? …

Peace …


Know that you’ll have to let go …

You’ll have to let Jesus continue on his own …

To fulfill the mystery of his earthly life as the Father has led him … alone …

But know that he continues on with the gift of your spirit …

        your caring and concern …

Know that you have an incredible ability to comfort others …

        to give people strength … because of what you have endured yourself …


Bring that gift of caring for others with you … and with stillness in your

        heart … return back here …

Leave the garden at the Mount of Olives …

And return here …

Knowing that you are not alone …

Knowing that you are with others …

Others with the same ability

Able to offer you the kind of caring and support that you need from them …

And be at peace …


When you are ready you may open your eyes …

But please don’t speak to anyone …

Or distract anyone from reflecting on the power they have to comfort

        people in their time of need …

In their time of need …

Their need for you.       


Originally published in Time With Jesus: Twenty Guided Meditations for Youth by Thomas F. Catucci.



March 24, 2015

Witness of Christian Martrys

As Holy Week approaches for 2015, the Passion of Christ is more present in our midst than ever. Around the world, Christians have been martyred in recent months, weeks, and days. Share several articles that detail news coverage of the events, prayers offered on the martyrs' behalf, and prayers for all persecuted Christians. After your students read each article, ask them to offer comment. If possible, have them write comments or prayers online directly below the article. If not possible, have them label their comments according to each article they have read and turn them in to you. Finally, have the students write their own prayers for these contemporary Christian martyrs and for peace in the world.

Here are a few recent articles to help you begin. Search other Catholic, Christian, and general news sites for other articles to further this activity.

1. A Testimony Which Cries Out

2. Two church bombings in Pakistan; Pope, bishops lament persecution of Christians

3. Names of 21 Christian Martyrs

4. Pope Francis Offers Mass for 21 Christian Martyrs

5. Palm Sunday Prayer to Remember Christian Martyrs

6. United States Catholic Bishops Call for Prayer Amidst Persecution and Violence Against Christians

7. Address by Bishop James D. Conley of the Diocese of Lincoln, Nebraska.







March 18, 2015

Catholic Colleges in March Madness 2015

It’s time once again to look at “March Madness”—the NCAA men’s and women’s basketball tournaments—through the lens of its Catholic college participants! Take some time to examine this year’s list of Catholic college teams that made the tournament and examine some possible assignments and activities suggested below to connect your students to these colleges and their Catholic mission and roots. Use the comment section below this post to add any other ideas you may have to combine this this current event with a classroom lesson.

First, here is a list of this year’s teams, ranked in order of their seedings:

Men’s Tournament

1. Villanova

2. Gonzaga                                                                                 

3. Notre Dame

4. Georgetown

5. Providence


7. St. John’s


Women’s Tournament

1. Notre Dame

2.  DePaul

     Seton Hall

4. Gonzaga

5. Dayton

6. St. Francis (Brooklyn)


Some Assignments and Activities Connected to the Tournament

  • Read about the recent formation of a new “Catholic conference.” 
  • Search the school websites of this year’s Catholic participants and read about the history, founder, and mission of each. Ask them to note how the school market’s its Catholic identity.
  • Collect a collage of images of the school’s religious sites (statues, chapel sanctuary, etc.).
  • Write a report about the college’s chapel. Include the liturgical schedule.
  • Look up each school’s current schedule. Name the school’s main “Catholic rival” on the schedule. Explain something of the history of the rivalry.
  • Name the founding religious order of each school.

Please suggest and share any other ideas to make this current event something that can enhance your theology classes during this madness of March!



March 5, 2015

Teacher-led Discussions on Two March Saints: St. Patrick (March 17) and St. Joseph (March 19)

By Justin McClain

The liturgical calendar for March features the feast days of two inspirational heroes: St. Patrick (March 17) and St. Joseph (March 19). These two holy men essentially lived for Christ and, pursuant to their respective spiritual gifts, had an especially heroic devotion to the Lord. There are various opportunities to bring knowledge of these saints into your classroom, particularly in terms of using what we know about their lives as a means of facilitating student discussions on their commitment to Christ.

Some objective and subjective questions that you could pose to your students in order to guide their reflection on St. Patrick and St. Joseph follow. Also listed below are some web resources that feature opportunities for students to gain even more introductory information on these two unique saints.



Reflection Questions for St. Patrick

  • In what ways did St. Patrick show courage throughout his life? Be specific.
  • How did St. Patrick persevere, even in the midst of his enslavement and leading up to his evangelization of Ireland? In what ways do you think St. Patrick faced discouragement, and how did he endure in his dedication to Christ?
  • How did St. Patrick explain the Holy Trinity using the example of a shamrock?
  • What role did St. Patrick play in invigorating the Catholic faith beyond the shores of Ireland, i.e., in mainland Europe?
  • What are other ways in which a devotion to St. Patrick can lead us to a deeper relationship with Jesus Christ and his Gospel?


Reflection Questions for St. Joseph

  • St. Joseph is often referred to as the “Silent St.,” due to the reality that we have no words of his within the Gospels, let alone elsewhere in scripture. How did St. Joseph’s silence underscore his humility as he served as Jesus’ foster-father?
  • How was Joseph a devoted husband to Mary and a devoted foster-father to Jesus?
  • Read about St. André Bessette, C.S.C., and his own devotion to St. Joseph, such as on the website for the aptly-named St. Joseph's Oratory of Mount Royal (in Québec). Why do you think that such humble saints as St. André promoted St. Joseph as a figure who can likewise draw us closer to Jesus?
  • What are other ways in which a devotion to St. Joseph can lead us to a deeper relationship with Jesus Christ and his Gospel?

In addition, have students read the references to St. Joseph within the Gospels of Matthew, Luke and John. They can use a free and reliable online Catholic concordance, such as the Cross Reference, to look up Joseph’s appearances in the Gospels. Then, have them write a topical reflection on such considerations as Joseph’s ultimate faith in the child Jesus and his deep devotion to protecting Jesus and Mary.


More Web Resources Regarding St. Patrick

New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia – “St. Patrick”

Catholic Online – “St. Patrick”

Catholic News Agency – “St. Patrick of Ireland”

EWTN – “St. Patrick, Bishop, Confessor, Apostle of Ireland, A.D. 464”

St. Patrick Centre (Northern Ireland) – “St. Patrick’s Legacy / St. Patrick’s World (Historical and Cultural Backdrop)”


More Web Resources Regarding St. Joseph:

New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia – “St. Joseph”

Catholic Education Resource Center – “St. Joseph” by Fr. William Saunders

Catholic Education Resource Center – “The Man Mary Loved” (an interview with Fr. Roland Gauthier, C.S.C., courtesy of the National Catholic Register, March 18-24, 2001):

Congregation of Holy Cross – Spirituality – St. Joseph

EWTN – Novena to St. Joseph


February 25, 2015

Four Ways for Your Students to Survive and Thrive in Lent

By Justin McClain


The academic third quarter, for both students and teachers alike, tends to have the notorious distinction of being one of the most challenging, both mentally and academically, of the four quarters of the school year. With half of the school year behind us, both mental energy and physical energy can be at a minimum.

It is an interesting situation that, in Catholic high schools, the mental trial that comprises the third academic quarter and the spiritual desert that comprises the Lenten season have some semblance of overlap. In fact, no matter to what extent the third quarter intersects with Lent each school year, a few realities are reliably present: the Christmas break was long ago, the Easter break is not necessarily very close, the summer vacation is too distant to fathom, and end-of-the-year projects and final examinations have yet to be conquered. Depending on your geographic location, you might even be dealing with extreme cold, winter precipitation and otherwise overcast conditions. Essentially, this can be a quite miserable time of year in various regards. One could discern that the third quarter is an acceptable metaphor for adolescence: you have to survive it in order to know just how much of a feat it actually was.

At my school, Bishop McNamara High School in Forestville, Maryland, which is sponsored by the Congregation of Holy Cross, founded by Blessed Father Basil Moreau, CSC, part of our charism is one that is fortunately also shared by numerous Catholic schools: forming both the minds and the hearts of our students. Therefore, efforts aimed at supporting our students’ mental sharpness while mired in the third quarter would be a bleak prospect if we did not likewise attend to the welfare of their hearts simultaneously, if not ultimately. My suggestion to you is that you do the same. Pay attention to your students’ spiritual wellbeing, in the midst of their academic concerns during this chronological intersection of the third quarter and Lent.

Here are four supportive steps to ensure that both you and your students not only mentally survive, but of more ultimate import, spiritually thrive. The first three steps (pray, fast and give) are traditional Catholic Lenten practices that have their origin in Matthew 6:1-18. The fourth step, sacrifice, is likewise an important Lenten practice and theme.

1. Pray

Typically, my theology students, in the midst of the third quarter, are tempted to have a certain malaise in terms of our practice of praying together at the beginning of each class session. Students seem lethargic, jaded and/or disenchanted with the totality of their academic expectations at this point in the school year. I have discovered that taking a moment to remind them of the importance of prayer is vital. Be sure to remind your own students that Jesus prayed to his Father constantly throughout the Gospels, especially in the most difficult moments: “Then [Jesus] told them a parable about the necessity for them to pray always without becoming weary” (Luke 18:1). Jesus prayed all of the time, but especially when he was facing the trials of his imperative life. Lent is a good opportunity to remind your students that prayer gives them the strength that they need to persevere and grow closer to the Lord in the midst of their academic pursuits. 

2. Fast

Fasting is one of the most humbling experiences that anyone can undertake. Our very human nature leads us to not want to fast, but to feast when the opportunity arises. It is not surprising that the Latin term “festa/festus,” the origin of such English terms as “feast,” “festal” and “festive,” exhibits that the concepts of feast and celebration are directly correlated. It is our instinct to look forward to celebrating occasions, but fasting—for teachers and students alike—provides us with a reminder of several realities of life: among the key ones, that we depend entirely on God, that suffering is a necessary part of our earthly existence, and that we must undergo a trial prior to receiving our reward. When we are physically weary, as can occur within the third quarter, denying ourselves food may seem counter-intuitive, but it is a spiritually refreshing way to reorient our focus on the Kingdom of God. Such a reorientation allows for an enduring invigoration of our resolve as we march through the third quarter, underscored by the significance of Lent.

3. Give

The world does not say to give; the world says to take, to collect, to receive, to want, to have more. Christ’s message is precisely the opposite: “Give, and gifts will be given to you; a good measure, packed together, shaken down, and overflowing will be poured into your lap. For the measure with which you measure will, in return, be measured out to you” (Luke 6:38). When you encourage your students to seek opportunities to give, whether via their time, talent, treasure, or any combination thereof, you are in turn providing them with an opportunity to better comprehend what is expected of them. This charitable expectation, based on the Lord’s assertion in Luke 6:38, is similarly reflected in a well-known excerpt from the Prayer of Saint Francis: “It is in giving that we receive.” Inspiring your students to give of themselves, through numerous capacities, will thus allow them to realize that it is in their gratuitous generosity of spirit that they will ultimately find the energy to labor for the redemptive edification of both themselves and their peers.

4. Sacrifice

The etymology of the English word “sacrifice” is that it comes from the Latin for “to make holy.” It is through the sanctification of our lives, inspired by the perfectly ministerial example of Jesus Christ, that we are able to solidify the combined goals of our prayer, fasting and almsgiving in such an avenue that we better value the Lord’s prime sacrifice for us. It is vitally necessary to guide your students to reflect on the supreme sacrifice that Jesus made for them through his Passion and Crucifixion, underscored by reminding them of the connotation of the memorial sacrifice of the Holy Eucharist. In the setting of the classroom, this guidance could come in the form of lesson plans that provide meditation focused on the Paschal Mystery, e.g., leading students through the recitation of the Stations of the Cross, or perhaps having them write a reflective journal narrative detailing the day-by-day inner torment that Jesus’ eleven remaining Apostles may have experienced throughout that first Triduum and prior to the first Easter. Such endeavors will encourage your students to more fully appreciate what they have received from God’s gift of himself through Jesus’ selfless sacrifice. Invite your students to look for ways in their lives in which they can imitate Jesus’ affirmation to God the Father: “He must increase; I must decrease” (John 3:30). Fundamentally, leading students to delve into opening themselves to the wellspring of love that Jesus extended to us through his sacrificial offer of Salvation is critical to allowing them to more effectively tap into their spiritual vigor as they expectantly advance through the desert of Lent in tempered preparation for the eventual celebration of Christ’s Resurrection at Easter. To ponder briefly the message of our Holy Father Pope Francis, from within his homily for Ash Wednesday this year, the Lenten season is “a time in which we try to unite ourselves more closely to the Lord Jesus Christ, to share the mystery of his Passion and Resurrection.”

May God bless you and your students during the remainder of your Lent, as we all seek additional opportunities to prayfastgive and otherwise sacrifice. This endeavor involves having your students sharpen their minds for the academic tasks that are on the horizon for the remainder of the school year, in order to inspire them to use their intellects for the greater glory of God. Likewise, and most monumentally, make sure to help your students understand that it is through drawing ever closer to the Lord Jesus Christ and his supremely holy will that they can expect the devotional vim for their souls to flourish through the Lord’s abundant grace, during Lent (along with the third quarter) and beyond.

February 19, 2015

Advantages of Using Writings from the Episcopate with Our Students

Mr. Justin McClain, a Theology teacher at Bishop McNamara High School in Forestville, Maryland, shares the importance of using primary source materials—particularly the writings of the popes and bishops—with your students. As he mentions in this article, doing so, encourages a religious literacy that furthers the Church’s efforts at a New Evangelization.


By Justin McClain

I recently had a brief conversation with a colleague, Jan Steeger, at Bishop McNamara High School (Forestville). Jan, an experienced biology teacher and faithful Catholic, is a member of the Archdiocese of Washington’s Caring for Creation Committee. Jan and I discussed how we were looking forward to reading Pope Francis’ forthcoming encyclical on the moral implications of ecology, in terms of respecting the earth as a gift for us to use, although with great caution. After our conversation, as I continued to reflect on a variety of writings from the episcopate on numerous other topics, I came to satisfactorily appreciate the breadth, extent, and availability of the writings of our bishops (including, of course, our popes), throughout the millennia. This is perhaps emblematic of the twentieth and beginning of the twenty-first centuries in particular, in accordance with our Catholic bishops’ steadfast reiteration of graciously enduring dogmatic and doctrinal elements whose predication has justifiably prevailed through multiple trials and tribulations.

For the Catholic, the Lord’s words in Jeremiah 1:5 should gladden the heart when we ponder the blessing of our bishops: “I will appoint for you shepherds after my own heart, who will shepherd you wisely and prudently” (cf. Ezekiel 34:23; John 21:15). We should likewise be inspired when we meditate on Jesus’ proclamation to Peter in Matthew 16:18: “And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it” (cf. John 1:42). The God-fearing duties of our Catholic bishops are multi-faceted, and include such roles as priest, pastor (i.e., “shepherd”) and teacher. Hence, for the last nearly two-thousand years since Christ’s earthly ministry, our bishops’ ordained priestly role, in conjunction with their pastoral role, has underscored their authoritative teaching role. Therefore, it is worthwhile to share Christ’s teachings, as propounded by our bishops, with broader humanity. By extension, we as theology teachers are called to impart Christ’s teachings on all of our theology students with a truly charitable pedagogical trajectory. (This dynamic coincides with the New Evangelization, which I will remark on later.)

A few years ago, when our principal at BMHS, Dr. Robert Van der Waag, was a colleague within our Department of Theology, he gave me some valuable advice that I have prudently implemented within my own theology courses in the years since. Dr. Van der Waag, who happens to hold a Ph.D. in systematic theology from Duquesne University, and has taught courses in the Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs at Georgetown University, encouraged me to ensure that I not merely describe a theological principle outlined in a primary source, but that I actually delve into the material by having my students read the primary source itself, when available (a point that I will imminently address). In the case of magisterial documents, there is hardly a shortage of relevant sources to access. Our BMHS Department of Theology chair, Adam Greer, has since likewise suggested that, when having the students read such scholarly content, I should be sure to peruse the writings with them in the classroom, on at least an introductory basis, whether in the writing’s entirety for shorter documents or in segments for the denser ones. There are various possibilities inherent to using magisterial writings in the theology classroom. As one example of myriad, when exploring the Church’s Gospel-laden teachings on service to the poor and otherwise vulnerable, a teacher could simply mention and describe the Church’s seven themes of Catholic social teaching, but it would enhance the lesson significantly to actually guide the students in reading through Pope Leo XIII’s watershed encyclical Rerum Novarum: On Capital and Labor (1891).

An advantage of using writings from the episcopate is their reliable fidelity to the Magisterium, given that they are imbued with a sanctified equilibrium of moral clarity and pastoral charity. This is perhaps especially true in terms of the bishops’ proclamation of the Church’s teachings on particularly sensitive moral issues that are often at odds with broader society’s canon of equivocation, whether concerning God’s plan for human sexuality in light of the sacredly complementary nature of Holy Matrimony, the innately precious value of all human life from the unborn child to the terminally infirm, the precariously detrimental underpinnings of armed international conflict, and so forth. Admittedly, while many magisterial documents, such as papal encyclicals, apostolic exhortations, or even some pastoral letters, may be perceived as intellectually impermeable by adolescents, as I stressed previously, subjecting them to deeper rhetorical analysis, as guided by the theology teacher in the classroom, can supportively enhance the academic rigor of any high school theology course.

Speaking of academic rigor vis-à-vis its associated concept of literacy, not only do we celebrate higher literacy across the globe than in former epochs of history, but our modern world, in the milieu of the “digital/information age,” further typified by globalization, is more connected, and by extension, more objectively (although not necessarily subjectively) informed, than at any other point in history. Between social media, online news outlets, digitized primary sources, and numerous other means of producing, diffusing and sharing various types of information, we have a vast assortment of ways to both retrieve and process an array of informational content. There are many positive factors implicit in this increased amount of resources, including efficiency, availability and productivity; thus, the utilization of documents from the episcopate is furthered by their broad ease of access. Hence, another advantage to using writings from the episcopate is that they are widely available, with key magisterial documents of various eras readily present on such locations as the websites for the Vatican, the Holy See’s publicly-oriented archived texts, or the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.

Along with bishops’ documents that are magisterial per se, there are also books on various topics that bishops and popes have written, thereby contributing significantly to Catholic scholarship and theological discourse. Depending on the scope of your theology course, you might even want to have your students read these books, perhaps as a book report, within the context of an adjudicated book group presentation, or via another format of assessment. These recommendations should prove helpful as an aid as we continue the work of the New Evangelization. For example, when looking for a literary framework from which to discuss the Church’s teachings on marriage, you might read and share excerpts from Karol Wojtyła/St. John Paul II’s book Love and Responsibility (1960). When searching for means of explaining the Church’s teachings on how immigrants are our treasured brethren, you could read and share Los Angeles Archbishop José Gómez’s book Immigration and the Next America: Renewing the Soul of Our Nation (2013). You might even find certain series that correspond to the particular liturgical season. For example, you might consider covering Pope Benedict XVI’s installment of Jesus of Nazareth: The Infancy Narratives during the Advent and Christmas seasons, his installment of Jesus of Nazareth: From the Baptism in the Jordan to the Transfiguration during Ordinary Time, and his installment of Jesus of Nazareth: From the Entrance into Jerusalem to the Resurrection during Lent and Easter. Of course, if you are looking to learn more about the New Evangelization itself, you might read and share Archdiocese of Washington Cardinal Donald Wuerl’s book New Evangelization: Passing on the Catholic Faith Today (2013). In addition to books, many dioceses also feature the homilies or personal blog entries of their respective bishops, such as the various homilies of Bishop Kevin Rhoades of the Diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend, or blog posts of Cardinal Wuerl. Such are the advantageous factors when considering methods of undertaking the New Evangelization during the era of digitization.

Further referencing the New Evangelization, in the midst of considering the use of writings from the bishops in the classroom, along with this dynamic state of technological affairs that has revolutionized the communication industry, we find ourselves, as theology teachers, attempting to live out the tenants of the New Evangelization. After all, the New Evangelization has provided us with a renewed opportunity to reengage the world, and Pope Francis reminded us in Evangelii Gaudium (“The Joy of the Gospel”) that “the New Evangelization is a summons addressed to all” (Evangelii Gaudium 14), which echoes the yearning of Lumen Gentium, yet another great magisterial document (this time, from the Second Vatican Council), for a “universal call to holiness in the Church” (Lumen Gentium 39-44). The message of Jesus Christ is, forevermore, refreshing and renewing: “Behold, I make all things new” (Revelation 21:5). An appropriate way for us theology teachers to engage with others in this New Evangelization is through ensuring that we are likewise informed ourselves in matters of faith and morals. As alluded to previously, with so much information being transmitted through cyberspace, the airwaves, digital media and other means, it can be a daunting challenge to sift through all of this opaqueness of erudition in order to ultimately encounter reputable sources. Fortunately, with the deposit of faith, comprising sacred scripture and sacred tradition, we have a wellspring of content that can simultaneously be spiritually enriching as we foster our personal relationship with Jesus Christ and effective in providing theological education of a qualitatively advanced academic fiber to assist our students as they strive to dialogue with society regarding the Church’s teachings and contributions to the public square. Assuredly, the most authoritative sources for the faithful will remain the Bible with Church-approved commentaries, along with the Catechism of the Catholic Church. When choosing other sources, due care should be taken to select reading material that is doctrinally sound, and the writings of the bishops are dependably so.


To reiterate my former assertion, regarding our embrace of our role in spreading the Gospel, we theology teachers ought to recall that preparing our students for their hopefully eventual entry into respectful dialogue with society beyond the walls of a Catholic school community involves being responsibly formed ourselves, which we can undertake based on a thorough, consistent and dedicated review of the panoply of theologically sound and easily accessible readings, many of which, e.g., approved versions of the Bible and Catechism, are readily available online. Below is an alphabetical sampling of various writings (from among a multitude), whether in the setting of a papal document, pastoral letter, book, or otherwise, that you could consider having your students read, whether in whole or in part, in your courses. They should all benefit your students, and could likewise contribute to your own spiritual enrichment as a theology teacher as we continue the labor of the New Evangelization, inspired by the commitment of our bishops, who are imitating the Good Shepherd himself (cf. John 10:1-21), Jesus Christ the Lord. This endeavor should draw both our students and us ever closer to Jesus, inspired by his call in Matthew 11:28-30: “Come to me, all you who labor and are burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am meek and humble of heart; and you will find rest for yourselves: For my yoke is easy, and my burden light.”


A Brief Sampling of Suggesting Readings

  • The Catholic Way: Faith for Living Today by Bishop (now Cardinal) Donald Wuerl (2001)
  • The Challenge of Peace: God’s Promise and Our Response (A Pastoral Letter on War and Peace) by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (1983)
  • Deus Caritas Est (“God Is Love”) by Pope Benedict XVI (2006)
  • Divino Afflante Spiritu: Promotion of Biblical Studies by Pope Pius XII (1943)
  • Evangelii Gaudium (“The Joy of the Gospel”) by Pope Francis (2013)
  • Evangelium Vitae (“The Gospel of Life”) by St.John Paul II (1995)
  • Faith that Transforms Us: Reflections on the Creed by Cardinal Donald Wuerl (2013)
  • Familiaris Consortio: On the Role of the Christian Family in the Modern World by St. John Paul II (1981)
  • Fides et Ratio: On the Relationship between Faith and Reason by St. John Paul II (1998)
  • The Historicity of the Gospels by the Pontifical Biblical Commission (1964)
  • The Holy Eucharist by Cardinal Francis Arinze (2001)
  • Humanae Vitae (“Human Life”) by Bl. Paul VI (1968)
  • The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church by the Pontifical Biblical Commission (1993)
  • Life of Christ by Venerable Archbishop Fulton Sheen (1977)
  • Love and Responsibility by St. John Paul II (1960)
  • Marriage: Love and Life in the Divine Plan by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (2009)
  • The Meaning of Christian Brotherhood by Pope Benedict XVI (1960)
  • Meeting Other Believers: The Risks and Rewards of Interreligious Dialogue by Cardinal Francis Arinze (1997)
  • New Evangelization: Passing on the Catholic Faith Today by Cardinal Donald Wuerl (2013)
  • Providentissimus Deus: On the Study of Sacred Scripture by Pope Leo XIII (1893)
  • Render unto Caesar: Serving the Nation by Living Our Catholic Beliefs in Political Life by Archbishop Charles Chaput (2008)
  • Rerum Novarum: On Capital and Labor by Pope Leo XIII (1891)
  • Seek First the Kingdom: Challenging the Culture by Living Our Faith by Cardinal Donald Wuerl (2012)

February 12, 2015

Giving Up Indifference for Lent


This Lent, Pope Francis invites people to stop being indifferent. A dictionary defines difference as “showing a lack of interest or concern.” Ask your students how that definition resonates in their own experiences, especially among peers. Also consider these other points about indifference and how to combat it:

1. Have your students spend a quiet moment comparing two past experiences in their lives, one positive experience, the other a negative experience.  The positive experience should be of a time when life seemed to be going their way and they were able to simply enjoy their successes. The negative experience should be of  a time when they felt discouraged about how things were going or were perhaps suffering in some way (e.g., from an illness or a death in the family). Call on students to explain their answers to both of these questions:

  • Were you more aware of the needs of others when you were feeling good or when you were feeling discouraged?
  • Were other people more aware of how you were doing when you were feeling good or feeling discouraged?

Share these words of Pope Francis: “As long as I am relatively healthy and comfortable, I don’t think about those less well off.”  Ask the students if his words resonate with their own experience.

2. If students have ever felt ignored by friends when they are struggling, they may have been on that side of indifference (“a lack of interest or concern about something”). Ask students to suggest some antonyms (and close antonyms) for indifference and write them on the board (e.g., concern, interest, awareness, sensitivity, care, love). Ask students to select among these antonyms that they also think are also Gospel values. Point out that, by asking people to give up indifference, the pope is asking people to live Gospel values this Lent.

3. Pope Francis believes that indifference has grown from a problem of a few individuals to being a larger problem for society: “Today, this selfish attitude of indifference has taken on global proportions, to the extent that we can speak of a globalization of indifference. It is a problem which we, as Christians, need to confront.” Ask students to provide several examples of indifference in personal relationships, school culture, local society, nationally, and internationally. List and discuss these examples.

4. The pope makes other points about indifference and the Catholic faith.

  • He writes that God is the very opposite of indifference, that he is very interested in each person, in each one of them. Since God is Love, loving is incompatible with indifference.
  • The Church should not be indifferent because it is the Body of Christ and according to St. Paul, “If one member suffers, all suffer together.” Ask students to mention some times when they witnessed this sort of solidarity or were part of it themselves. The pope suggests that the Eucharist helps shape Catholics into the Body of Christ where there is no room for indifference.
  • God calls Christian communities to go outside of themselves and be engaged with the greater society, especially the poor. The Church is not self-enclosed. He says, “In each of our neighbors, then, we must see a brother or sister for whom Christ died and rose again. What we ourselves have received, we have received for them as well. Similarly, all that our brothers and sisters possess is a gift for the Church and for all humanity.”
  • Pope Francis calls Christians to engage in a formation of the heart – a heart that is strong enough to resist temptation but that can still be touched by the Holy Spirit. “The suffering of others is a call to conversion, since their need reminds me of the uncertainty of my own life and my dependence on God and my brothers and sisters.”  Remind your students that prayer is an important way to form their heart and respond to the needs of others. Lent is also a good time to reach out in charity to others. Ask students to consider how the practices of prayer, fasting, and almsgiving can be a way to address indifference.  In prayer, it is possible to petition God on behalf of those who are suffering. Fasting is a way to suffer with others who suffer, to increase awareness of what others lack. Finally, almsgiving is a way to share resources with those who have less.


View the full text of Pope Francis' Lenten message here.


February 6, 2015

Christianity in China?

There are quite a few question marks about Catholicism and Christianity in China today. Have your students research the answers to these questions. (Another option is to share some information with them and then use a Socratic method to help them discover some of the current religious dynamics.)


  • What is the difference between the Catholic Patriotic Association and the Three-Self Patriotic Movement versus the unofficial Catholic and Protestant churches? (The first two names describe the Catholic and Protestant Churches headed by government officials and in the case of Catholicism, rather than the Vatican. The unofficial churches are those that are unwilling to be regulated by the government.)
  • Why does the Vatican not have relations with the People’s Republic of China in Beijing and instead have relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan? (Not only does the Beijing government not approve of the Vatican and considers it a “foreign force” that is likely to “interfere in China’s internal affairs,” Beijing also does not recognize the Vatican’s right to name bishops and otherwise make decisions for the Chinese Catholic church like it does in other parts of the world. The Vatican does not have the same issues with the government in Taiwan.)
  • What opportunities are available to those who are Communist Party members in China that are not open to non-party members? (Prior to the 1980s, membership in the Communist Party was the aspiration of many Chinese. Now, anyone interested in a career in government and in some other job areas must be a Community Party member.)
  • Although China’s atheist Communist government cracked down on religious organizations in the 1960s, they had lessened the attacks somewhat over time. What new religious threats may be the reason that the country is cracking down again on all Christian groups? (Christian groups are growing very quickly and may already exceed the number of Communist Party members. The Communist Party is also taking a more nationalistic tone under its leader, Xi Jinping.)
  • What types of measures is the Chinese government taking to try and stem the growing number of Christians in the country? (The Chinese government has been sending police to congregations, removing crosses from churches, tearing down churches in some places – especially in the Zhejiang province, arresting underground bishops and home church leaders, putting others under house arrest, and ordaining priests they can control as bishops.)
  • What does this statement, “resolutely resist the use of Christianity by foreigners to infiltrate China,” say about the officials’ fears about Christianity? (One of the reasons that Christianity threatens Communist Party leaders is because it is international and not completely under the control of the Community Party.)
  • What do China’s President’s praises of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism suggest about the party’s feelings about religion? (Perhaps the Party’s concern is not so much with religion per se but with Christianity since they seem to hope that reviving these Asian religions will lessen the spread of Christianity.)



January 30, 2015

Enjoy the High School Newsletter for Spring 2015!

Please follow this link to our Engaging Minds, Hearts, & Hands for Faith High School Newsletter for Spring 2015. In this issue you will find the following articles:

  • "Ave Celebrates 150 Years!" by Stephanie Sibal 
  • "Beyond the Job Description" by Jared Dees 
  • "Catholic Education and Jesus as Definitive Teacher" by Justin McClain 
  • "Getting the Most Out of theTextbook" by Tom Dlugosz 
  • "Happy 80th Birthday to Sr. Kieran Sawyer, S.S.N.D.!" by Michael Amodei 
  • "New Elements in the Encountering Jesus Series Teacher's Wraparound Editions" by Christine Schmertz-Navarro 

Engaging Minds, Hearts, and Hands for Faith is a free newsletter published by Ave Maria Press. To subscribe, email your name, the name of your school, and your address to reled@nd.edu.

January 19, 2015

Blessed Basil Moreau on the Quality of Gentleness for Teachers

January 20 is the feast day of Bl. Basil Moreau, founder of the Congregation of Holy Cross, and a true patron saint of Catholic religious education and formation. The following quotation on the necessity for teachers to take on the quality of gentleness is taken from Christian Education, a manuscript outlining the ideals and goals of Holy Cross education as Moreau saw them.


On Gentleness

It was the Lord Himself who said “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.” There is no other conclusion to be reached than that in the overseeing of the mind and heart of a young person and in the effective use of authority in a school, a teacher needs to possess gentleness. Gentleness is the filling of the soul with the Spirit so as to moderate the anger that arises when a person feels irritated towards those who have caused some injury. It is the result of a patience that never tires and of a self-control that keeps everything under the guardianship of reason and faith.


Given that, one can understand the need of such a virtue in teachers, for to fulfill their mission successfully teachers must make themselves liked by their students. Gentleness is the only way in which they will succeed in the task of bringing out love in their students. You are aware of the statement “love causes love.” As people, we are built so that we cannot resist a person who displays true affection for us. Young people are very impressionable and are especially prone to this. They relate easily and happily with those from whom they hope and expect to receive reciprocal love and confidence. Feelings of love and respect between teachers and students are the result of charity and gentleness, inseparable virtues that cannot exist independently of one another. Saint Francis de Sales himself says that meekness is “the very flower of charity.”

Teachers who are meek and who follow the example of Jesus Christ lose none of their authority and do not stress what is hard and severe in authority. They put themselves in their students’ places. They try to persuade their students that they will find in their teachers tender and devoted friends who understand them. Considering themselves as taking the place of those who have entrusted young people to them, gentle teachers borrow from the father and the mother positive feelings toward young people. Everything in such teachers bears the stamp of this virtue: They avoid judging with harshness and anger, and they do not rely on exaggerated confidence in themselves. They are always guided by a heart full of compassion and kindness and make their decisions without stubbornness or injustice. They do not say things that will hurt the feelings of young people and do not make fun of students, as people who often feel injured by the statements or actions of another do. Gentleness overcomes those tendencies to self-love and shuts out the desire for revenge. Gentleness permits teachers to endure all the adversities and unpleasant experiences and occurrences that go hand in hand with schooling and to proceed with complete calmness of spirit.

Gentleness begets a number of other good qualities: sensibility, good will, and a pleasant manner of acting and speaking. Gentleness permits teachers to remove what is harsh from a command, permits teachers to participate in activities with young people, leads teachers to be able to talk and discuss matters with students, permits teachers to sympathize with students who are often upset over things that are not important, and permits teachers to assist students when they are not feeling well or when they are depressed. Teachers filled with meekness can show an interest and an affection for young people that will win hearts. In class such teachers treat students with politeness, answer their questions with patience, and help keep students from punishments as much as possible by keeping them out of situations that are likely to lead them to misbehavior and punishment.

Gentle teachers will never be seen to inflict punishment when they are overly angry and upset. They will never push to the limit a student who is ready to react with anger and an outburst. Since these teachers are more disposed to reward than to punishment, whenever someone guilty of an offense wishes to return to a positive relationship, they pardon the student and show even more respect and friendship to that student than before. Gentle teachers also look upon school as their mission. Far from being a source of boredom and disappointment, classes become a real pleasure. This simply supports the statement of the wise person who said, “Do everything with gentleness and you will attract not only the respect but the love of other people.”

Teachers who have drawn such gentleness from Jesus Christ will be blessed and happy. They will truly be the important people in their school, and they will cause Jesus Christ to be the important person there. Loved by their students and respected by the parents, who will be so happy to have found such excellent teachers for their children, they will be rewarded with blessings from the entire school community and will go through life “doing good works.” Their memory will remain engraved upon the hearts of those students whom they have brought to the fullness of Christianity, and they will be a model to imitate and an example to follow.

Sad results flow from teachers who lack these qualities. Teachers who make no effort to acquire the gentleness of mind and heart that was recommended by Jesus Christ are really to be pitied. In their classes, they are annoyed and angered over every little thing. They shout, talk harshly, and carry on in all kinds of ways. Their rude and harsh approach intimidates and frightens students without their realizing that these actions can compromise them in the eyes of their students and the students’ families. They injure their students by making fun of their inadequacies, or their families, or their ethnic background. They call their students names. They impose exaggerated and unjust punishments on some; they require of others assignments and duties beyond the range of their abilities or experience. They cause students to lose a love of learning and to develop a distaste for school. Such conduct on the part of teachers earns them scorn and dislike; students try to find all kinds of ways of getting away from them and look for all kinds of ways to displease them. Not only will these teachers be unable to bring students to the fullness of Christianity, but they will also be unable to give students the knowledge and the instruction that are owed them. It would have been better if such teachers had never entered a classroom and attempted the difficult art of teaching.


January 15, 2015

Pope Francis to Canonize Bl. Junipero Serra

Pope Francis announced today that he will canonize Bl. Jinipero Serra (1713-1784), the Franciscan priest who carried on extensive missionary work in California in the eighteenth century. "In September, God willing, I will canonize Junipero Serra in the United States, who was the evangelizer of the west of the United States," he told reporters aboard the plane taking him from Sri Lanka to Manila on the second leg of his Asian tour.

Bl. Junipero Serra helped to found nine missions in California beginning with the San Diego mission in 1769. He died in 1784 near the mission in Carmel. In time, Spanish missionaries built twenty-one missions in California.

The basic idea behind the missions was to keep the nomadic Native Americans from wandering, settle them by teaching them farming techniques, and then trying to convert them to the faith. Thus, missionaries set up schools, churches, and marketplaces. They taught women domestic arts like sewing, weaving, and cooking. They trained men to be farmers, carpenters, ranches, and tanners. Missions were spaced out a day's walk from one another. A criticism of the mission system was that in most cases once the Native Americans had converted to Christianity they were not free to leave the missions.

When Spain lost control of Mexico in 1828, the missions declined. Some friars left for Spain. A secular government took over Mexico. Greedy politicians looted and ruined missions, exploiting and killing Native Americans. Religious practice declined. By the time the United States took California from Mexico in 1847, there were only thirteen priests left in the vast territory.


  • Read and report on the California missions. See information at this state sponsored site.
  • Read and report on the life of Bl. Junipero Serra. See the Catholic Encyclopedia site.


January 8, 2015

Meeting the New Cardinals

Pope Francis announced his intention to create twenty new cardinals at the upcoming consistory (an assembly of cardinals called together by the pope) on February 14, 2015. Fifteen of the new cardinals are less than eighty years old and would be eligible to vote for a new pope should the need arise. Five of the cardinals are over eighty and will receive the red biretta (the three-peaked hat worn by cardinals) as an honor for their service to the Church, but would not be eligible to vote for a new pope.

The new cardinals represent many smaller countries and countries with few Catholics. Some observers were surprised by this. Others noted that the international nature of his choices and his decision not to make cardinals out of leaders of traditional cardinalatial sees (cities that are usually headed by cardinals) has precedence in Popes Pius XII and Pope Benedict XVI. In 1946, Pope Pius XII chose fifteen cardinals from around the world as well as seventeen from Europe and the United States.  Pope Benedict’s final consistory in 2012 was also international with one new cardinal from the United States and the other five from Lebanon, India, Nigeria, Colombia, and the Philippines.

Invite students to review geography and consider the countries in which these cardinals live.

You might consider posing questions like the following:

  • Where in these countries will the new cardinals live?
  • How many of them will be cardinals of cities that are also capitals of their countries?

Elector Cardinals

  1. Archbishop John Atcherley Dew of Wellington (New Zealand) Where? Southern tip of North Island, capital city
  2. Archbishop Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet, S.D.B., of Montevideo (Uruguay) Where? Southern tip of Uruguay on the coast, capital city
  3. Archbishop Ricardo Blázquez Pérez of Vallodolid (Spain) Where? North central Spain
  4. Archbishop Alberto Suàrez Inda of Morelia (Mexico) Where? Middle of Mexico but closer to the Pacific Ocean
  5. Archbishop Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovithavanij of Bangkok (Thailand) Where? Southern part of country, capital city
  6. Archbishiop Manuel José Macario do Nascimento Clemente, Patriarch* of Lisbon (Portugal) Where? Southwest Portugal, near coast, capital city
  7. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura** Where? Vatican
  8. Archbishop Charles Maung Bo, S.D.B., of Yangon (Myanmar) Where? South of the main part of the country, capital until 2005
  9. Archbishop Edoardo Menichelli of Ancona-Osimo (Italy) Where? Northern east coast
  10. Archbishop Francesco Montenegro of Agrigento (Italy) West coast of Sicily
  11. Archbishop Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, C.M., of Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) Where? Center of Ethiopia, capital city
  12. Archbishop Pierre Nguyên Van Nhon of Hà Nôi (Viêt Nam) Where? South central area of country, capital city
  13. Bishop Arlindo Gomes Furtado, of Santiago de Cabo Verde (Archipelago of Cape Verde) Where? Middle of largest island
  14. Bishop José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán, O.A.R., of David (Panamá) Where? Western side of country
  15. Bishop Soane Patita Paini Mafi of Tonga (Island of Tonga) center of the Island of Tonga

Non-elector Cardinals

  1. Archbishop Luigi De Magistris, Major Pro-Penitentiary*** Emeritus (Italy);
  2. Júlio Duarte Langa, Bishop Emeritus of Xai-Xai (Mozambique).
  3. Archbishop Karl-Joseph Rauber, Apostolic Nuncio**** (Germany);
  4. José de Jesús Pimiento Rodriguez, Archbishop Emeritus of Manizales (Colombia);
  5. Luis Héctor Villaba, Archbishop Emeritus of Tucumán (Argentina)

* Why is the cardinal-elect from Portugal known as the “Patriarch” of Lisbon? A papal Bull (decree) in 1716 gave the cleric who presided at the college chapel cathedral the rank of patriarch. The patriarch was responsible for Western Lisbon and some other areas. The plan was that he would be created a cardinal at the first consistory following his appointment. Later, the patriarch became responsible for Eastern Lisbon and other areas formerly under the leadership of the archbishop of Lisbon because there was no need for an archbishop and a patriarch at the same time.

** What is the Prefect for the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura? The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura is a court of justice, in this case the supreme court of justice for the Vatican that also ensures that justice in the Church is correctly administered. The prefect is the chief officer of this tribunal.

*** What is the Major Pro-Penitentiary Emeritus? This is the Vatican court of mercy that deals with issues such as excommunication, indulgences, and so on. Emeritus is a Latin term that describes a person who has retired from a post.

**** What is an apostolic nuncio? An apostolic nuncio is a Church diplomat to a state or international organization.


  • Elizabeth Dias, “Pope Francis Surprises Again: 20 New Cardinals, None from USA.” January 4, 2015, Time, http://time.com/3652935/pope-francis-cardinals/
  • Robert Mickens, “Francis chooses new cardinals from the margins,” January 5, 2015, National Catholic Reporter Online, http://ncronline.org/blogs/roman-observer/francis-chooses-new-cardinals-margins
  • Andrea Tornielli, “Pius XII and Benedict XVI’s “global” Consistories,” January 5, 2015, Vatican Insider, http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/en/the-vatican/detail/articolo/pio-xii-pacelli-papa-pope-concistoro-concistory-concistorio-38389/.

January 6, 2015

Happy Feast Day St. Andre Bessette!

Enjoy sharing some brief background on the life of St. Andre Bessette, a humble member of the Congregation of Holy Cross, and the prayer to St. Joseph, the one he was devoted to.The feast day of St. Andre Bessette is January 6.




Traditional Novena Prayer to St. Joseph

Oh Saint Joseph, whose protection is so great, so strong, so prompt before the Throne of God, I place in you all my interests and desires.

Oh Saint Joseph, do assist me by your powerful intercession and obtain for me from your Divine Son, all spiritual blessings through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, so that having engaged here below your heavenly power, I may offer my thanksgiving and homage to the most loving of fathers.

Oh Saint Joseph, I never weary of contemplating you and Jesus asleep in your arms. I dare not approach while He reposes near your heart. Press Him in my name and kiss His fine head for me, and ask Him to return the kiss when I draw my dying breath.

Saint Joseph, Patron of the departing souls, pray for us. Amen.

January 2, 2015

Prayer Experience: "The Light of the World"

For this prayer experience you will need tapers, slips of paper, and something to write with. Gather the students in an open space. Have them sit in a circle. Give each person an unlit taper candle. Follow these directions.

  1. Remind the students that Jesus calls himself "the light of the world" (Jn 8:12).
  2. Have the students write on small slips of paper specific elements of darknes in their own lives (e.g., jealousy, hatred, prejudice, fear, loneliness) and on other slips of paper specific ways Jesus has brought light to their lives (e.g., a special friendship, a caring teacher, a favorite spot in nature, peace through participation in the sacraments, prayer).
  3. Have the group sit in a circle with the unlit taper candles. Make the room as dark as possible.
  4. Call on one student to begin by sharing an occarsion of darkness from his or her life. Repeat the process around the rest of the circle with each student sharing about darkness.
  5. Then, repeat the sharing, this time with the participant telling about how Jesus brings light to their lives (e.g., family relationships, friendships, achievements, nature, compassion, love). Light the first person's candle.
  6. Repeat the process. After each new person has shared, they should light their candle from the person who spoke before them.
  7. Conclude with a song, perhaps "I Am the Light of the World" by Greg Hayakawa.

December 22, 2014

Merry Christmas from Ave Maria Press

And suddenly there was a multitude of the heavenly host with the angel, praising God and saying:

“Glory to God in the highest

 and on earth peace to those on whom his

favor rests.”

--Luke 2:13-14


December 15, 2014

“The Bethlehem Explosion”

The following lesson centers around the poem "The Bethlhem Explosion" by Madeline L'Engle. The accompanying background material and lesson is taken from The Catholic Spirit: An Anthology for Discovering Faith Through Literature, Art, Film, and Music by Michel Bettgole, OSF, and James D. Childs.

Author Background

Madeleine L’Engle (1916–2007) was a prolific writer of more than sixty books in a variety of forms, including fiction, fantasy, biography, poetry, and prose. She is best known, however, for her children’s books. Her book of fantasy, A Wrinkle in Time, won the distinguished Newberry Medal for Children’s Literature. Madeleine L’Engle was a woman of profound religious faith. She felt strongly that all writers, especially Christian writers, had a vocation from God to bring hope and light into a darkened world. As she said in her book Walking on Water, the writer has a duty “to further the coming of the kingdom and to turn our feet toward home.”


Before the Reading

It is God’s will to reveal himself and his purpose for humankind. However, God has not made his revelation known all at once. He has revealed himself to humanity in stages. First he spoke to Adam and Eve, and made a covenant with them to send a Redeemer who would defeat death and sin. He then spoke to Noah and granted him dominion over all the things of the earth. Next, God spoke to Abraham and the Patriarchs and to Moses and made an everlasting covenant with the people of Israel. Finally, the Lord  made himself most perfectly known through the revelation of his Son, Jesus Christ. “In times past. God spoke in partial and various ways to our ancestors through the prophet; in these last days, he spoke to us through a son, whom he made heir of all things and through whom he created the universe” (Heb 1:1–2). All Salvation History leads up to the moment when Christ comes into the world as true God and true man. In her poem “The Bethlehem Explosion,” Madeleine L’Engle writes about a common experiment in a chemistry class. Because she sees the world with the eyes of faith, this common experiment becomes a sign and a metaphor for the coming of Jesus into the world.


“The Bethlehem Explosion”

In those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that the world should be enrolled. And Joseph too went up from the town of Nazareth to Judea, to the city of David that is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David, to be enrolled with Mary, his betrothed, who was with child (Lk 1:1, 4–5).


The chemistry lab at school

was in an old greenhouse

surrounded by ancient live oaks

garnished with Spanish moss.


The experiment I remember best

was pouring a quart of clear fluid

into a glass jar, and dropping into it,

grain by grain, salt-sized crystals,

until they layered

like white sand on the floor of the jar.


One more grain—and suddenly—

water and crystal burst

into a living, moving pattern,

a silent, quietly violent explosion.

The teacher told us that only when

we supersaturated the solution,

would come the precipitation.


The little town

was like the glass jar in our lab.

One by one they came, grain by grain,

all those of the house of David,

like grains of sand to be counted.


The inn was full. When Joseph knocked,

his wife was already in labour; there was no room

even for compassion. Until the barn was offered.

That was the precipitating factor. A child was born,

and the pattern changed forever, the cosmos

shaken with that silent explosion.


Reading for Comprehension

1.   Where was the chemistry laboratory located?

2.   What does the student do with the individual grains of salt-sized crystals?

3.   What is meant by “supersaturation”?

4.   What happened when the final grain was dropped into the solution?

5.   What is the final event that causes “the silent explosion in the cosmos” that completes God’s plan?


Reading for Understanding

  1. What aspects of the birth of Jesus are represented in the poem by: the glass jar, the grains of crystal, the silent and violent explosion in the glass jar?
  2. An explosion destroys the surface order of things to reveal the power that lies beneath. Read John 1:1–3. Explain how Christ’s birth reveals the dynamic love of God that was present from the beginning of creation.
  3. God speaks to us as individuals at various stages of our life. In a gradual manner or by a sudden event, he makes himself known to us and enables us to see people, events, and God himself in a clearer way. Examine a decisive moment in your life. What did it tell you about yourself or the world? How would your life be different if that event had never occurred? How did God speak to you in this event? What was the Lord trying to tell you?


God revealed himself to Israel, his Chosen People, over a long period of time. Read the following stories from the Bible:

  • the creation of Adam and Eve (Genesis 2:4–24);
  • the freeing of the Israelites from Egypt (Exodus 14);
  • the prophecies about the Suffering Servant (Isaiah 52:13–53:12).

How can each of these episodes be compared to the grains of crystal described in L’Engle’s poem? Read the account of the Transfiguration found in Matthew 17:1–8. How is this manifestation of Jesus in glory another example of a “silent explosion”?


December 9, 2014

Prayer to the Virgin of Guadalupe

December 12 is the Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Patroness of the Americas, Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas. On his first journey as pope in 1979, St. John Paul II went to Mexico "to invoke on my pontificate the motherly protection and assistance of Our Lady of Guadalupe; to repeat to her with greater vigor prompted by new and immense obligations: 'Totus tuus sum ego!' (I am all yours!), and to place in her hands the future of evangelization in Latin America. He composed the following prayer for the visit. Pray it with your students by dividing the class in half to alternate each praying aloud each stanza.

O Immaculate Virgin, Mother of the true God and Mother of the Church!, who from this place reveal your clemency and your pity to all those who ask for your protection, hear the prayer that we address to you with filial trust, and present it to your Son Jesus, our sole Redeemer.

Mother of Mercy, Teacher of hidden and silent sacrifice, to you, who come to meet us sinners, we dedicate on this day all our being and all our love. We also dedicate to you our life, our work, our joys, our infirmities and our sorrows. Grant peace, justice and prosperity to our peoples; for we entrust to your care all that we have and all that we are, our Lady and Mother. We wish to be entirely yours and to walk with you along the way of complete faithfulness to Jesus Christ in His Church; hold us always with your loving hand.

Virgin of Guadalupe, Mother of the Americas, we pray to you for all the Bishops, that they may lead the faithful along paths of intense Christian life, of love and humble service of God and souls. Contemplate this immense harvest, and intercede with the Lord that He may instill a hunger for holiness in the whole people of God, and grant abundant vocations of priests and religious, strong in the faith and zealous dispensers of God’s mysteries.

Grant to our homes the grace of loving and respecting life in its beginnings, with the same love with which you conceived in your womb the life of the Son of God. Blessed Virgin Mary, protect our families, so that they may always be united, and bless the upbringing of our children.

Our hope, look upon us with compassion, teach us to go continually to Jesus and, if we fall, help us to rise again, to return to Him, by means of the confession of our faults and sins in the Sacrament of Penance, which gives peace to the soul.

We beg you to grant us a great love for all the holy Sacraments, which are, as it were, the signs that your Son left us on earth.

Thus, Most Holy Mother, with the peace of God in our conscience, with our hearts free from evil and hatred, we will be able to bring to all true joy and true peace, which come to us from your son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who with God the Father and the Holy Spirit, lives and reigns for ever and ever.


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